Toxicological evaluation of aqueous and methanol extracts of Dacryodes edulis stem bark
PN Akunne, NEJ Orhue, PA Obarisiagbon
Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the toxicological effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of Dacryodes edulis stem bark on Wistar RatsMethodology:The stem bark of Dacryodes edulis were locally sourced from a farmer in Ologbo area of Edo State, Nigeria and were identified by a botanist. The stem bark were chopped in pieces, air dried and ground to fine powder using milling machine and extracted using water and methanol respectively. Acute toxicity was determined using Lorke’s method. In the main study, 35 adult male Wistar were acclimatized for seven days and were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each. Group A served as normal control in which rats were given only feed and water. Groups B, C and D were administered 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of aqueous extract of D. edulis stem bark respectively while groups E, F and G were administered 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw of methanol extract of D. edulis stem bark respectively via oral route for 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for biochemical assays. Liver, kidney and heart of animals were harvested for enzymes assays and histopathology.Results: The result of the acute toxicity of Dacryodes edulis in this study showed that the LD50 of its aqueous and methanolic extract of stem bark is greater than 5000 mg/kg as no mortality was recorded at this dose except for a decline in the normal activity of the animals administered 5000 mg/kg dose. Administration of 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous and methanol extracts of D. edulis Stem bark was observed to have no significant effect on the parameters determined when compared with those in the control animals. However, administration of 2000 mg/kg of aqueous and methanol extracts of D. edulis stem bark significantly (p<0.05) perturbed hepatic, protein, renal, lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers when respectively compared with those in the animals in the control group.Conclusion: The result of this study showed that both aqueous and methanol extracts of D. edulis stem bark are not toxic at a dose of 1000 mg/kg and below. However, a dose of 2000 mg/kg elicited toxic effects on the measured parameters. Thus, its consumption at high dose should be discouraged.
PN Akunne, NEJ Orhue, PA Obarisiagbon. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous and methanol extracts of Dacryodes edulis stem bark . International Journal of Clinical Biology and Biochemistry. 2021; 3(1): 01-10.