Musa O Salawu, Mohammed A Iduze, Babalola Ola Yusuf, Aderounmu I Ganiyu
The protective effect of oral co-administration of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta and E. coli endotoxin to rats was studied on liver and kidney function indices and antioxidant status in rats. Thirty-five (35) rats were randomized into 7 groups containing 5 rats each- Group A distilled water, Group Ascorbic acid and Endotoxin, Group C Endotoxin dose (50 EU/kg bw), Group D 50 mg/kg body weight (bw) of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract only and Group (E-G) 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg bw Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract plus 50 EU/kg bw endotoxin respectively. The oral administration was repeated for 21 days at 11:30 am daily. Rectal temperatures of the rats were taken at an interval of 30 mins, 60 mins, 90 mins and 120 mins post administration. At the end of the 21 days, the animals were sacrificed and the serum, kidney and liver was obtained. Specific activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase as well as concentrations of creatinine and urea in the serum were determined. Activites of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also determined. Also assayed for was malondialdehyde concentration. Histopathological analysis was carried out on the liver and kidney from each test groups. Results show that exposure to 50 EU/ml endotoxin for 21 days plus extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg BW significantly (P<0.05) increased the specific activities of alanine aminotransferase and decreased the specfic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase respectively. However, concentrations of creatinine in the serum significantly (P<0.05) decreased at a dose of extract 25 mg/kg. Urea concentration stayed stable at all doses and malondialdehyde significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly (P<0.05) decreased mostly at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of the extract. Histopathological study revealed inflamed hepatocytes and disrupted kidney functions in the untreated group and while organs of test groups administered 100 mg/kg bw of the extract were improved. This study hence supports the protective effects of the administration of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta prior to oral administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin as the extract at doses between 50 and 100 mg/kg protected the organs from the effect of reactive oxygen species induced by oral endotoxin on liver and kidney function indices.
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