Sanam Naz, Razia Iqbal and Muhammad Faheem Malik
Skin is the largest organ of our body when it is exposed to exogenous irritants and allergens in 24hours, these noxious agents’ cause immunotoxicity, and Contact dermatitis (CD) is one of them. Here in this review we had checked its types, main causes, Action mechanisms of irritants and allergens, Clinical aspects and its management: diagnostic tests, preventions and treatments of this contagion. There are two types of CD: first is the Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and second one is Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ICD is exposure of skin by physiological, biological, and chemical toxins resulting into rupturing of stratum corneum and release of cytokines which show inflammatory response. ACD is the interaction of xenobiotics with immune system. It is basically the immunotoxicity by chemicals which is developed by two phases (1) induction and (2) elicitation. Phototoxic and photo allergic CD is developed when CD is due to sunlight exposure. Management of CD is including (1) primary prevention: by avoidance or preventions at different levels (2) secondary prevention: when skin is affected by chemicals then diagnoses is very necessary by Patch test and photo Patch test(3)Tertiary prevention: treatment should be done as soon as possible by steroids and other products.
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